Monument record MYO2061 - Tenement 21 and 22 (59-65 Low Petergate)


In 1364 this tenement was described as lying at the end of Petergate on the corner of Grape Lane on the south side. It lay between Tenement 22 to the south east and the land of the priory of Newburgh on the corner of Patrickpool and Grapelane. In c. 1201 the tenement included four booths (bothas) in Petergate, a wooden chamber (camera lignea) lying towards St Benedict’s church and the land which Gregory the chaplain held (1). At this time, or a few years later, there may also have been stone houses on the site (2). By 1364 there had been substantial redevelopment, for the tenement included houses containing twelve shops (schoppas), with a principal messuage lying between the shops (6). Among the sub tenants and inhabitants in the later 13th and 14th centuries, were several prominent spicers and grocers (3, 4, 5). Tenement 22 Site Description This tenement lay between Tenements 21 and 23 and extended back from Petergate as far as the land of the priory of Newburgh behind (9,10). Described in the 13th century simply as land with buildings, by 1345 Tenement 22 contained six shops (7 11). Monument plotted on GIS to match modern property boundaries.


Grid reference Centred SE 60346 52047 (24m by 30m)
Map sheet SE65SW
Unitary Authority City of York, North Yorkshire


Type and Period (0)

Full Description

In c. 1201 the dean and chapter of York Minster confirmed to John Lombard, their clerk, for the service of St Nicholas in the crypt, all the rents he had acquired including 4 booths (bothas) in Petergate, a wooden chamber (camera) towards (the church of) St Benedict and the land which Gregory the chaplain held. All had belonged to John de Morton who confirmed Lombard's acquisition of the property.

Lombard was to enjoy the property during his lifetime saving an annual rent of 40s. to Nicholas the chantry priest. After Lombard's death all the property was to be used for the endowment of the chantry (1). In a later grant John Lombard confirmed the endowment to Thomas son of Alexander, then the chantry chaplain. The property was described as stone houses (dom lapide) which Lombard had collected from John and Thomas, brothers (2). No further location was given but the property should probably be identified as Tenement 21 since in 1364 the chantry of St Nicholas had no other property in York (6).

After John Lombard's death the collation of the chantry belonged to the dean and chapter, and the chaplain was normally a member of the vicars choral. In the survey of St Peter's Liberty made in March 1276 Tenement 21 was described as:

Item tota illa terra in Petergate quam Ricardus
Ipothecarius tenet de Radulpho de Thirnum vicario
ecclesie Beati Petri que iacet inter terram Alani
de Quixlay in Petergate (Tenement 22) et terram
Prioris de Novo Burgo in venella sancti Benedicti
est de terra Sancti Petri et dant gavelgeld (3).

A later charter of 1387 also confirmed that Richard Spicer (alias Apothecary) and John his son once lived here (7). In a charter, now lost but briefly calendared in the 16th century, John son of Richard le Specer granted to Richard de Alverton, merchant, that messuage with buildings in a lane in Petergate in the parish of St Michael (4). While this transacton may refer to Tenement 21 it is more
likely that it refers to Tenement 26. There is no other record of Richard de Allerton's interest here, although there are a number of references which seem to indicate he had a tenancy of Tenement 26. This alternative is further supported by the calendar of a quitclaim by Alice, widow of John son of Richard le Spicer, to William de Strensall, who certainly held Tenement 26 (see p. 00 below).

In 1352 the vicars complained that the houses, then held by Richard de Wreshill, which had used to pay 40s., were then diminished to 30s. p.a. through the devastation of the plague and the poverty of their tenants (5). Richard de Wreshill, mercer, was enrolled as a freeman of the city in 1343 (Freemen's Register, 37).

By 1364 a survey of the endowments of the chantry of St Nicholas in York Minster stated that this tenement provided an annual rent to the chantry custodian, Elias de Walkington (warden of the vicars choral), of 5 marks from the houses and twelve shops, and of 30 marks from the principal messuage (6). The sum of 30 marks here seems to be an error for 30 shillings, in which case it would seem that the original endowment was borne entirely by the principal messuage, the shops and smaller houses being leased for additional income which had not been mentioned in 1352. The chantry’s endowments were managed indepedently of the majority of the college's endowments and no rent accounts have survived, although one conveyance between feoffees survives, dated 13 April 1387. The property was described as a messuage owing 30s annual rent to the chantry (7).

Following the dissolution of the chantries, a survey of chantry endowments in 1546 found that George Maison, the incumbent of St Nicholas chantry, received 9s. a year from one tenement in Grooplayn in the tenure of /first name omitted/ Johnson (8).

1. BL, Cotton MS Claudius B iii, fo 67; YMF, ii, 141 42
2. BL, Cotton MS Claudius B iii, fo 30; YMF, ii, 143
3. YML, L2/1 pt iv, fo 44; L2/2a, fo 21v.
Item, all that land in Petergate which Richard Apothecary holds of Ralph de Thirnum, vicar of the church of St Peter, which lies between the land ofAlan de Whixley in Petergate (Tenement 22) and the land of the prior of Newburgh in St Benedict's lane is of the land of St Peter and pays gavelgeld (husgable).
4. YML, M2/2a, fo 29v
5. 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 259
6. YML, M2/4g, fo 40v
7. PRO, E.326/5342
8. Yorkshire Chantry Certificates, 1, pp.38 39

Tenement 22

Site Ownership and Occupation
The predecessors of John Bonde de Morton held this tenement in the early to mid 13th century. It is possible therefore that this tenement was held together with Tenement 21 by John de Mortuna, the owner of Tenement 21 before c. 1201 [Tenement 21 above], and the two plots may together have formed a single burgage. This might explain why the Essex family owed 2d. husgable to the king, for their grants, may refer to both Tenements 21 and 22 (1, 5).

In c. 1230 x 1240 Robert de Essex and his wife Agnes sold and quitclaimed all their right in this land with buildings to Nicholas son of Hugh Palmer and William son of
Walter, spicer (speciario). As haimald land (sicut terra haymalda) it owed 2d. p.a. husgable to the king (1).

By 1276 the warden of the vicars choral, Alan de Whixley, had been granted the tenement (2) and in February 1281 he had his right in the tenement confirmed before the king's bench against the plea of Henry de Morton and Isabel his wife, Ellen sister of Isabel, John son of Thomas de Oswaldewyk and Sarah his wife, Alan de Oswaldewyk and Emma his wife, Gilbert de Morton and Alice his wife, Alice daughter of Christiana and John de Morton, at the cost of 12 marks (3). Two quitclaims: one from John Bonde de Morton to the vicars in an annual rent of 25s. from that tenement which they had of his predecessors (4), and another bought on 18 December 1283 from Richard son of Robert de Essex in all right in the houses in Petergate once of his parents (5), further secured the college's title.

In 1363 the vicars choral still had 'an ancient rent' of 25s. here although they had claimed in 1352 that this had been detained unjustly from them (6, 13).

Six shops were first recorded on this site in April 1345 when John son of Robert de Cotness de Ravenser Odd granted them to his relation, John son of Thomas de Cotness de Ravenser Odd, for the latter's life only, as part of a rent of 100s. from his lands and tenements in York and Kingston upon Hull (7).

Before 1345 they had belonged to Peter de Appleby (8), whose widow, Ellen, granted her dower rights in the shops to Margaret, widow of Nicholas de Langton senior. By mistake, or fraudulently, ignoring his life tenancy, on 18 October 1345 John son of Thomas granted the reversion of the shops after Margaret's death to Hamo de Hessay (9). The true owner of the reversion, John son of Robert, had his title confirmed by John son of Thomas before the king's bench, and in recognition of this, on 29 January 1346 he himself granted and confirmed the reversion of the shops to Hamo de Hessay (10). Three days later John son of Thomas also made a quitclaim in the shops to Hamo de Hessay (11).

In August 1355 Hamo de Hessay granted the shops to four individual members of the vicars choral, Roger de Everton, John de Alkbarowe, William Wygiard and Thomas de Besyngby, chaplains (12). Earlier in the same month their college had already undertaken to celebrate two obits supported from the property. One was for Roger de Everton, vicar, and the other for Robert Sweetmouth, vicar, and John de Acum and his wife Ellen and their families (13).

The four vicars had been acting as feofees on behalf of their college in the acquisition of a large number of properties in the city prior to applying for a single
licence allowing their alienation in mortmain to the college. The licence was finally obtained in 1363 and the properties formally granted to the college in September 1363
(14). The necessary inquisition found that the six shops were held of the king in burgage without rent and to owe an ancient rent of 25s (see above) to the vicars choral (15).

1 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 177; YML, VC 3/Vi 324. This grant has been attributed to this tenement because of its position in the cartulary following no. 4 below. It may, however, refer to Tenement 21 as well.
2 Abutments from Tenement 21; YML, L2/1 pt iv, fo 44; L2/2a,
fo 21v (see extract on p 00 above); PRO, E.326/5342
3 Yorks. Fines, 1272 1300, 62
4 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 179
5 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 178; YML, Metcalfe, 'Deeds
in Extenso', vol Vi a, no 87
6 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', nos 259, 317
7 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 277
8 Abutment from Tenement 23; YML, M2/2a fo 75
9 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 278
10 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', nos 279, 280
11 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 276
12 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', no 309; YML, VC 3/Vi 328, 329,
13 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', nos 281, 275; YML, VC 3/Vo 23;
YML, L2/2a, fo 85v
14 'Vicars Choral Cartulary', nos 311, 312; YML, VC 3/Vi
102, 193/i & ii
15 PRO, C.143/345/2

Sarah Rees Jones, 1987, Property, tenure and rents: some aspects of the topography and economy of medieval York (Unpublished document). SYO1072.

Sources/Archives (1)

  • --- Unpublished document: Sarah Rees Jones. 1987. Property, tenure and rents: some aspects of the topography and economy of medieval York.

Protected Status/Designation

Related Monuments/Buildings (2)

Related Events/Activities (0)

Record last edited

May 21 2020 1:18PM


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