Monument record MYO4955 - York (Early Med - Med town)

Summary

York was an established Anglian town by the mid 8th century with its origins going back into the 7th century. York fell to the Danish army in 866 and was the centre of a Danish kingdom for the next fifty years. During the first half of the tenth century the town was on various occasions captured by Norse invaders from Ireland and by Eric Bloodaxe of Norway, eventually being taken by Athelstan and Edmund of Wessex. The town is documented at Domesday and there are many sources for the medieval town, which was incorporated as a borough in 1396.

Location

Grid reference SE 6030 5209 (point)
Map sheet SE65SW
Unitary Authority City of York, North Yorkshire

Map

Type and Period (2)

Full Description

NMR Information

SE 6031 5209. Early Medieval and Medieval York.

During the 5th and 6th centuries nothing is known of York, but in 601 Gregory planned to establish a see centred on the town, and in 627 Edwin built the church of St. Peter. By the mid 8th century, with
the foundation of the School of York, the city was becoming a leading centre of European civilization.

York fell to the Danish army in 866 becoming, for the next 50 years, the centre of the Danish Kingdom. During the first half of the 10th century the city was on various occasions captured by Norse invaders
from Ireland and by Eric Bloodaxe of Norway and recaptured by Athelstan and Edmund of Wessex. After 954 Northumbria was governed from York by a succession of earls.

The major finds consist of a bronze bowl from the castle yard and a fluted glass bowl from the Mount, both of late 5th-early 6th century date, several Anglian and Danish sculptured stones dating from the
early 8th century to the Norman Conquest, numerous miscellaneous objects of Anglo-Scandinavian date, occasional graves including the trunk burials, and coins dating back to the 7th century. (1)

Most of the items listed above, are displayed in York Museum which houses a considerable number of Anglo-Saxon finds from the city. The latest of these is an Anglo-Saxon cross fragment found in the wall of a building at SE 6042 5190 during structural alterations in 1963. (2)

In 625, York is recorded as an episcopal see. In the Domesday Book it was divided into seven `shires', six belonging to the king and one to the archbishop (a). In 1130, the liberties of York were granted to the burgesses of Beverley (b). Between 1154 and 1158 a charter of Henry II granted to the city of York their merchant guild, and all the liberties they had under Henry I (c). In 1396, the city was incorporated as a county borough (d). In 1275, Bootham (York) was declared to be a free borough belonging to St Mary's Abbey (e). In 1313, 1319 and 1322, Bootham was taxed as a borough (f). In 1088
1093, William II confirmed Count Alan the Red of Brittany's grant to St Mary's Abbey of the borough in which the church (of St Olave) is situated from `Galmonhou' towards Clifton and the water (g). (3-3g)

Sources

1 A history of Yorkshire: the city of York 1961 edited by P M Tillott 2-24, 332-6 1961 (A G Dickens)
2 Field Investigators Comments Field Investigator, ECW, 02-JUL-1963
3 English medieval boroughs: a handlist 1973 by M W Beresford, H P R Finberg 184-6,188 1973
3a VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION Domesday Book, vol I, 298a
3b VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION Ballard A, British Borough Charters 1042-1216, 1913, 23, 99, 176, 191, 202
3c VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION Ballard A, British Borough Charters 1042-1216, 1913, p 6, 204
3d VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION Weinbaum M, British Borough Charters 1307-1660, 1943, 132
3e A history of Yorkshire: the city of York 1961 edited by P M Tillott 39-40 1961
3f VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION Willard J F, "Taxation Boroughs and Parliamentary Boroughs" in Edwards J G - editor, Historical Essays in Honour of James Tait, 1933, 435
3g VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION

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Compiler DAVID HORRIGAN RCHME York 1995-01-06 1995-01-06 RCHME STAFF
Surveyor ERIC CHARLES WAIGHT Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division 1963-07-02 1963-07-02 Ordnance Survey Archaeology Officer 29-OCT-1956-19-SEP-1967 and 04-APR-1972-15-SEP-1975


NMR, NMR data (Unassigned). SYO2214.

Sources/Archives (1)

  • --- Unassigned: NMR. NMR data.

Protected Status/Designation

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Record last edited

Jun 22 2020 4:20PM

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