Monument record MYO4333 - 41-49 Walmgate Phase 9


Phase 9 illustrates the construction of 3 buildings, with a range of alterations and changes of use within each from 14th-16th century. Evidence for a significant amount of metal working on site, with presence of a blacksmith workshop.


Grid reference Centred SE 6075 5157 (22m by 21m)
Map sheet SE65SW
Unitary Authority City of York, North Yorkshire


Type and Period (8)

Full Description

Phase 9-Construction of building U on Walmgate street front, with the building fuctioning partly as a smithy/workshop, and possibly attached to building S (phase 8). East-west dwarf wall evident, built of rough limestone blocks. Within building U, 2 probable hearths located, one with deposits synonymous with metal working. This could be a smiths workshop. Evidence of repair to original hearth.
New building (V), constructed to East of building U, with new boundary wall marking the south and east of the Walmgate properties also constructed at this point. This created a yard space between the two boundaries, with a further building (W) located in the yard space.

Evidence of conversion of smithy/workshop in building U to a shop unit, with craft activity shifting to the rear of the property. Demolition of building R (phase 7/8) and boundary wall, construction of new wall built mainly of rough limestone blocks. Probable that earlier wall was re-used for the Walmgate street frontage wall. This would have created an east-west building parallel to the street front, with a central hearth constructed just off centre in building V. New boundary in form of a limestone dwarf wall between properties that fronted onto Walmgate (U,V,W) and the area behind which may have been accessed from a lane on the eastern side of St. Denys' church yard. Also forms a structural element to buildings on site. Second dwarf wall built which additionally formed a wall around a yard area and possibly building W. Evidence of possible metal working processes in middle room behind shop in building U.

Small timber staircase in yard area south of building V. Evidence of yard being used to tip waste and metal working by-products. Strong connection between all buildings U, V and W on site, with potential industrial links between all three.
Construction of building X (late 14th-early 15th century) on limestone rubble foundation. Evidence for conversion of shop unit to hall (building U) in early 15th century. Large rectangular hearth evident.
Screen passage/entry inserted between buildings U and V, giving access to the smithy workshop.
Central hearth in building V replaced by better constructed hearth, stake built partition inserted just to west of central hearth, probably the eastern side of the screens passage or entry. Recconstruction of ne-sw wall, part of building U, and construction of further hearth, with additional possible casting pit discovered.
Building Y constructed to east of building X, with suggestion of metal-working activity and possibility of building Y being an extension of buildings U and W. Shallow pit also uncovered, related to metal-working or rubbish disposal.

Passageway running back from building V down west side of building U, maybe to separate from industrial activity. Probable new boundary wall in area to east of yard and building V. Evidence for hall room being converted to a second shop unit in 15th century, with front wall of the property also rebuilt. Presence of a further hearth in building U, brick-built and well-preserved, possibly built at this time or slightly later. Yard and passageway continued to be used.
Building Y modified internally and addition of a possible garderobe.

Evidence of mid 15th century metal working is found in building U, with the second shop used as a blacksmiths shop. In the room behind smithy shop, presence of what is thought to be location of a large furnace, although no structural evidence remains. Evidence for continued metalworking activity in Y, with large pit, possibly a casting pit. Continuation of metalworking activity in building U, used as a blacksmiths shop in late 15th/early 16th century, with presence of industrial pits in shop area. Building V renovated, with stake-built partition falling out of use. Central hearth constructed.

Exterior stair base for building V dismantled late 15th century and potential structure of unknown function built in the yard area, possibly outbuildings. Eastern wall of northern room of building U and western wall of building V possibly rebuilt, with stake holes indicating a north-south screen or partition wall. Double chimney stack inserted between U and V, possibly incorporating a blacksmiths hearth or furnace, although there is little evidence for this. Evidence for metalworking in buildings U and V continues in 16th century, with brick structures (possibly a sluice or furnace) industrial pits and possible hearth/bosh evident. In room behind smithy in building U, original furnace likely robbed out and replaced with smaller one, which was also eventually robbed out, likely then replaced again with new furnace base and tap pit evident.
In late 16th century building W likely cleared and cobbled path inserted, garderobe at eastern end of extension reaching end of its life. Metalworking likely continued on site, with unusual clay-lined feature identified probably having an industrial function.

York Archaeological Trust, 2001, 41-49 Walmgate Assessment Report on an Archaeological Excavation Vol 2 (Unpublished document). SYO744.

York Archaeological Trust, 2001, 41-49 Walmgate Assessment Report on an Archaeological Excavation Vol 3 Context List (Unpublished document). SYO745.

York Archaeological Trust, 2001, Excavations at 41–49 Walmgate, Vol 1 (Unpublished document). SYO202.

Sources/Archives (3)

  • --- Unpublished document: York Archaeological Trust. 2001. Excavations at 41–49 Walmgate, Vol 1.
  • --- Unpublished document: York Archaeological Trust. 2001. 41-49 Walmgate Assessment Report on an Archaeological Excavation Vol 2.
  • --- Unpublished document: York Archaeological Trust. 2001. 41-49 Walmgate Assessment Report on an Archaeological Excavation Vol 3 Context List.

Protected Status/Designation

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Record last edited

Apr 17 2018 1:48PM


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